H. A. Lorentz. Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light. // Proceedings Royal Acad., Amsterdam. Vol. VI., 1904

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that those parts which are dark while the system is at rest, will remain so after it has been put m motion. It will therefore be impossible to detect an influence of the Earth’s motion on any optical experiment, made with a terrestrial source of light, in which the geometrical distribution of light and darkness is observed. Many experiments on interference and diffraction belong to this class.

In the second place, if in two points of a system, rays of light of the same state of polarization are propagated in the same direction, the ratio between the amplitudes in these points may be shown not to be altered by a translation. The latter remark applies to those experiments in which the intensities in adjacent parts of the field of view are compared.

The above conclusions confirm the results I have formerly obtained by a similar train of reasoning, in which however the terms of the second order were neglected. They also contain an explanation of Michelson’s negative result, more general and of somewhat different form than the one previously given, and they show why Rayleigh and Brace could find no signs of double refraction produced by the motion of the Earth.

As to the experiments of Trodton and Noble, their negative result becomes at once clear, if we admit the hypotheses of § 8. It may be inferred from these and from our last assumption (§10) that the only effect of the translation must have been a contraction of the whole system of electrons and other particles constituting the charged condenser and the beam and thread of the torsion-balance. Such a contraction does not give rise to a sensible change of direction.

It need hardly be said that the present theory is put forward with all due reserve. Though it seems to me that it can account for all well established facts, it leads to some consequences that cannot as yet be put to the test of experiment. One of these is that the result of MrcHELSON’s experiment must remain negative, if the interfering rays of light are made to travel through some ponderable transparent body.

Our assumption about the contraction of the electrons cannot in itself be pronounced to be either plausible or inadmissible. What we know about the nature of electrons is very little and the only means of pushing our way farther will be to test such hypotheses as 1 have here made. Of course, there will be difficulties, e.g. as soon as we come to consider the rotation of electrons. Perhaps we shall have to suppose that in those phenomena in which, if there is no translation, spherical electrons rotate about a diameter, the points of the electrons in the moving system will describe elliptic paths,

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corresponding, in the manner specified in § 10, to the circular paths described in the other case.

§ 12. It remains to say some words about molecular motion. We may conceive that bodies in which this has a sensible influence or even predominates, undergo the same deformation as the systems of particles of constant relative position of which alone we have spoken till now. Indeed, in two systems of molecules 2' and 2, the first without and the second with a translation, we may imagine molecular motions corresponding to each other in such a way that, if a particle in 2' has a certain position at a definite instant, a particle in 2 occupies at the corresponding instant the corresponding position. This being assumed, we may use the relation (33) between the accelerations in all those cases in which the velocity of molecular motion is very small as copipared to to. In these cases the molecular forces may be taken to be determined by the relative positions, independently of the velocities of molecular motion. If, finally, we suppose these forces to be limited to such small distances that, for particles acting on each other, the difference of local times may be neglected, one of the particles, together with those which lie in its sphere of attraction or repulsion, will form a system which undergoes the often mentioned deformation. In virtue of the second hypothesis of § 8 we may therefore apply to the resulting molecular force acting on a particle, the equation (21). Consequently, the proper relation between the forces and the accelerations will exist in the two cases, if we suppose that the masses of all particles are influenced by a translation to the same degree as the eleclromagnetie masses of the electrons.

§ 13. The values (30) which I have found for the longitudinal and transverse masses of an electron, expressed in terms of its velocity, are not the same as those that have been formerly obtained by Abraham. The ground for this difference is solely to be sought in the circumstance that, in his theory, the electrons are treated as spheres of invariable dimensions. Now, as regards the transverse mass, the results of Abraham have been confirmed in a most remarkable way by Kaufmann’s measurements of the deflexion of radium-rays in electric and magnetic fields. Therefore, if there is not to be a most serious objection to the theory I have now proposed, it must be possible to show that those measurements agree with my values nearly as well as with those of Abraham.

I shall begin by discussing two of the series of measurements

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