Action of Magnetism on Light Waves 117
the horizontal vibrations, while the lower three correspond to the vertical vibrations. In the case of the red radiations it will be noted that, whether there is a magnetic field or not, there is no particular change for red cadmium light when the horizontal vibrations alone are considered. When the field is on, the vertical vibrations give a double line, or possibly one of more complex form.
In the case of the blue radiations, however, when there is a magnetic field and only horizontal vibrations are allowed to pass through, the line is double. The doubling is very distinct, and the separation is so wide that it should be easily seen by means of the spectroscope. When the vertical vibrations alone are allowed to pass through, there is a very much more complicated effect. In all cases we can see that the line is double, as in the case of red cadmium light, but in this case each component of the double lines is at least quadruple, or even more complex.
In the case of the green radiation, when horizontal vibrations only are considered, we have a triple line for the central line of the Zeeman triplet. When horizontal vibrations alone are allowed to pass through without a magnetic field, it resembles in general character the red line (r/. Fig. 07). When vertical vibrations are examined in the magnetic field, the line is highly complex; and in this case it is absolutely certain that each of the components of the double consists of at least three separate lines. The phenomenon is perfectly symmetrical about the central line.
Light Waves and Their Uses
It appears from these results that the Zeeman effect is a much more complex phenomenon than was at first supposed, and therefore the simple explanation that was given above no longer applies. At any rate, it nfust be very seriously modified in order to account for the much more highly complex character of the phenomena, as here described. The complete theory has not yet been worked out, and meanwhile we must gather whatever information we can concerning the behavior of as many different radiations as possible. Every attempt to deduce some general law which will cover all cases at present known has thus far proved unsuccessful. There are a number of anomalies which seem even more difficult to account for than the doubling of this middle line and the multiplication of the side lines. For example, in one of the radiations examined, the line without any magnetic field appeared as quadruple, but when the magnetic field was on, it appeared as a single line.
There are quite a number of other interesting cases, which we have not time to consider now. The explanation of these anomalies will probably not be given until long after the explanation of the doubling and tripling and multiplication of separate lines.
The examination of spectral lines by means of the interferometer, while in some respects ideally perfect, is still objectionable for several reasons. In particular, it requires a very long time to make a set of observations, and we can