# Michelson A. A. Light waves and their uses (1903)

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 Light Waves as Standards of Length 93 standard with the slightest possible error, amounting, perhaps, to one-twentieth of a micron; in some cases a little less. If two plane surfaces be parallel to one another and a given distance apart, then, with the interferometer, we may locate the position of either one of these surfaces by means of the interference fringes in white light to within one-twentieth of a fringe, which means one-fortieth of a wave, or one-eightieth of a micron. It has been found most convenient to use glass surfaces very carefully polished and made as nearly plane as possible, and silvered on the front. The two surfaces are mounted on a brass casting, and carefully adjusted so as to be as nearly parallel as possible, so that it does not matter what part of the surface is used. This parallelism of the two surfaces must be arranged with extraordinary accuracy; the greatest deviation from true parallelism must be of the order of one-half of a fringe, which would be one-fourth of a wave length, or one-eighth of a micron. Since the width of the surface is something like two centimeters, the allowable angle between the two surfaces is something like one part in two hundred thousand. A section of the intermediate standard we have been describing is represented in Fig. 70. The two glass surfaces are about two centimeters square and silvered 011 their front surfaces, which are very nearly true planes. Their rear surfaces press against three small pins. These are adjusted 94 Light Waves and Theib Uses for parallelism by tiling until the requisite degree of accuracy is obtained. The parallelism cannot be made altogether perfect, and, as a matter of fact, in some cases the error may amount to as much as one-tenth of a micron or more. Fig. 71 represents a perspective view of the same thing. In this figure the intermediate standard rests on a carriage by means of which it may be moved as necessary for the purpose of comparing it with the whole meter. In making this comparison the surfaces must be parallel to the mirror which serves as a reference plane in the interferometer. The parallelism in this case must be of the same order of accuracy as that between the surfaces themselves. The adjustment is made by the screws at the rear, one of which turns the whole standard about a vertical axis and the other about a horizontal one. In determining the number of waves in the meter, the first operation is to find the number of whole waves in this intermediate standard. It can readily be conceived that the counting of something like 300,000 waves would be no small matter; in fact, a little calculation would show that, if we counted two per second, it would take over forty hours to make the count. Probably a number of methods will suggest themselves of making such a process of counting automatic. Indeed, several experiments have been made, and with some promise of success; but the possibility