Huggins, Maxwell, 1868 //Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 158 (1868)

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line at 50080 millionths of a millimetre, the effect of half the orbital motion would be to degrade the refrangibility of the line by 0*023, an alteration of wave-length which would correspond to about O'Ol of the large micrometer-head, an interval too small to be detected.

We learn from these observations, that if the line be emitted by nitrogen, the nebula is not receding from us with a velocity greater than ten miles per second; for this motion, added to that of the earths orbital velocity, would have caused a want of coincidence that could be observed. Further, that if the nebula be approaching our system, its velocity may be as much as twenty miles or twenty-five miles per second; for part of its motion of approach would be masked by the effect of the motion of the earth in the contrary direction.

The double line in the nitrogen-spectrum does not consist of sharply defined lines, but each component is nebulous, and remains of a greater width than the image of the slit*. The breadth of these lines appears to be connected with the conditions of tension and of temperature of the gas. Plucker^ states that when an induction-spark of great lieating-power is employed, the lines expand so as to unite and form an undivided band. Even when the.duplicity exists, the eye ceases to have the power to distinguish the component lines, if the intensity of the light be greatly diminished.

Though I have been unable to detect duplicity in the corresponding line in the nebula, it might possibly be found to be double if seen under more favourable conditions ; I incline to the belief that it is not double £.

In my Tables of the lines of the air I estimated the brightness of each of the components of the double line in the spectrum of nitrogen at 10, and the components of the double line next in brightness in the orange at 7 and 5, and those of a third double line on the less refrangible side of D at 6 and 4. It was with reference to these two double lines next in apparent brilliancy that I wrote ||, in speaking of the line in the nebula, If, however, this line were due to nitrogen, we ought to see other lines as well; for there are specially two strong double lines in the spectrum of nitrogen, one at least of which, if they existed in the light of the nebulae, would be easily visible.

As the disappearance of the whole spectrum of nitrogen, with the exception of the one double line, was unexpected, though, indeed, in accordance with my previous estimations, I examined the spectrum of nitrogen with a spectroscope furnished with one prism with a refracting angle of 60, in which the whole of the spectrum from C to G is included in the field of view. I then moved between the eye and the little telescope of the spectroscope a wedge of neutral-tint glass corrected for refraction by an inverted similar

* Secchi states that with his direct spectroscope this line in the annular nebula in Lyra appears double. As the image of the nebula is viewed directly, after elongation by the cylindrical lens, and without a slit, it is probable that the two lines may correspond to the two sides of the elongated annulus of the nebula.

f Philosophical Transactions, 1863, p. 13.

J On the Spectra of the Chemical Elements, Philosophical Transactions, 1864, p. 141.

Ibid. || Ibid. p. 443.

mdccclxvui. 4 F

wedge of crown glass, and which I had found to be sensibly equal in absorbing power on the different parts of the visible spectrum. As the darker part of the wedge was brought before the eye, the two groups in the orange were quite extinguished, while the lines in the green still remained of considerable brightness. The line which under these circumstances remained longest visible next to the brightest line, was one more refrangible at 2669 of the scale of my map. This observation was made with a narrow slit. When the induction-spark was looked at from a distance of some feet with a direct-vision prism held close to the eye, I was surprised to observe that the double line in the orange appeared to me to be the brightest in the spectrum, and when the neutral-tint wedge was interposed, this line in the orange remained alone visible, all the other lines being extinguished.

When, however, in place of the simple prism a small direct-vision spectroscope provided with a slit was employed, I found it to be possible, by receding from the spark, to find a position in which the double line in the green, with which the line in the nebula coincides, was alone visible, and the spectrum of the spark in nitrogen resembled that of a monochromatic nebula.

It is obvious that if the spectrum of hydrogen were reduced in intensity, the line in the blue, which corresponds to that in the nebula, would remain visible after the line in the red and the lines more refrangible than F had become too feeble to affect the eye.

It therefore becomes a question of much interest whether the one, two, three, or four lines seen in the spectra of these nebulae represent the whole of the light emitted by these bodies, or whether these lines are the strongest lines only of their spectra which, by reason of their greater intensity, have succeeded in reaching the earth. Since these nebulae are bodies which have a sensible diameter, and in all probability present a continuous luminous surface, or nearly so, we cannot suppose that any lines have been extinguished by the effect of the distance of these objects from us.

If we had evidence that the other lines which present themselves in the spectra of nitrogen and hydrogen were quenched on their way to us we should have to consider their disappearance as an indication of a power of extinction residing in cosmical space, similar to that which was suggested from theoretical considerations by Cheseaux, and was afterwards supported on other grounds by Olbers and the elder Struve. Further, as the lines which we see in the nebulae are precisely those which experiment shows would longest resist extinction, at least so far as respects their power of producing an impression on our visual organs, we might conclude that this absorptive property of space is not elective in its action on light, but is of the character of a general absorption acting equally, or nearly so, on light of every degree of refrangibility. Whatever may be the true state of the case, the result of this reexamination of the spectrum of this nebula appears to give increased probability to the suggestion that followed from my former observations, namely, that the substances hydrogen and nitrogen are the principal constituents of the nebulae of the class under consideration.

I now pass to observations of the third line of the nebular spectrum, the one which I



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